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  • AutoCAD - Chapter 8
    By: CVT
    Chapter 8 : The methods of choosing geometric shapes Lesson 1 : To choose objects by windows Lesson 2 : Addition and elimination of the chosen components Lesson 3 : To apply shortcut keys Autocad is a professional but user friendly program with a broad scope of information. This collection teaches step by step drawing geometric shapes and their measures very clearly. At first, this program focuses on simulation and modeling and you will see various methods and tools to work with. Ribbon is one of the most important icon which acts as a big box full of icons in its shelves. In addition to Ribbon, Palette is another brilliant part in interface. Palettes provide quick access to designing items, properties and commands. The lowest part in interface is called status bar which gives and displays information about the settings. By putting mouse indicator on each item, we can see their status from guide frame. To start a new program in Autocad , it is better to know how we can open a file. DWG suffix which is a short form of drawing. This drawing is used for introducing the file and saved sample. There are different commands such as panning, zooming and regen which are used a lot in precise mathematical calculation. Saving the documents can be done easily with the help of instructions in Autocad. Drawing shapes and lines are necessary and full application in autocad as well as using ortho and polar. They are used for determining angles like the angle 90 degrees . For drawing circles, you can activate grids and then by drawing the radius , in drawing these shapes , dimensions are very important. Units play some roles in measuring the architectural plans which are mostly inch and foot. Metric system can help for measuring units in autocad as well. You also see some features such as snap object to draw shapes. Before beginning, you ought to activate grid and dynamic input from status bar. There are automatic parts in object snap too. To draw a quadrangle, ellipse and polygon is another feature of autocad , like other shapes, you can use commands. Line command is really central in all drawings. Copy and move are other commands which are used in drawing geometric shapes. Omission and addition are the other methods in drawing geometric shapes, then offset can be really vital. Actually offset command is used for copying. The other commands are undo and redo which are used for returning the shapes in their first mode. Hatching is one feature which has been left from the age of pencil and paper. Adding hatch effects increase the attraction of image. Another feature is fillet feature , by using them , we can form the points and corners as curve. Layers can also be an important concept which are used in organizing drawings. Layer properties manager is the main icon for being activated and inactivated in creating and adjusting shapes and drawing. After creating shapes and drawing the page of autocad most of the times we need to add a text, this is done by guide text , text arrangement and text mode command , then the next stage is editing them. All the calculations which have been done and formed on the shape. To adjust the dimensions are also key instruction in autocad. Whenever we are going to copy a shape, converting it to a block is a good idea. Block means a collection of geometric shapes whose name is determined in the image. At the end, the feature of printing is also possible, by choosing favorite printer and giving commands to the program.
  • AutoCAD - Chapter 7
    By: CVT
    Chapter 7 : The method of basic changes Lesson 1 : To create geometric changes by property changer Lesson 2 : To copy and move the elements Lesson 3 : The way of elements rotations Lesson 4 : Omission and addition of some parts of geometric shapes Lesson 5 : The method of creating offset Lesson 6 : Omission of elements Lesson 7 : To redo and undo an action Autocad is a professional but user friendly program with a broad scope of information. This collection teaches step by step drawing geometric shapes and their measures very clearly. At first, this program focuses on simulation and modeling and you will see various methods and tools to work with. Ribbon is one of the most important icon which acts as a big box full of icons in its shelves. In addition to Ribbon, Palette is another brilliant part in interface. Palettes provide quick access to designing items, properties and commands. The lowest part in interface is called status bar which gives and displays information about the settings. By putting mouse indicator on each item, we can see their status from guide frame. To start a new program in Autocad , it is better to know how we can open a file. DWG suffix which is a short form of drawing. This drawing is used for introducing the file and saved sample. There are different commands such as panning, zooming and regen which are used a lot in precise mathematical calculation. Saving the documents can be done easily with the help of instructions in Autocad. Drawing shapes and lines are necessary and full application in autocad as well as using ortho and polar. They are used for determining angles like the angle 90 degrees . For drawing circles, you can activate grids and then by drawing the radius , in drawing these shapes , dimensions are very important. Units play some roles in measuring the architectural plans which are mostly inch and foot. Metric system can help for measuring units in autocad as well. You also see some features such as snap object to draw shapes. Before beginning, you ought to activate grid and dynamic input from status bar. There are automatic parts in object snap too. To draw a quadrangle, ellipse and polygon is another feature of autocad , like other shapes, you can use commands. Line command is really central in all drawings. Copy and move are other commands which are used in drawing geometric shapes. Omission and addition are the other methods in drawing geometric shapes, then offset can be really vital. Actually offset command is used for copying. The other commands are undo and redo which are used for returning the shapes in their first mode. Hatching is one feature which has been left from the age of pencil and paper. Adding hatch effects increase the attraction of image. Another feature is fillet feature , by using them , we can form the points and corners as curve. Layers can also be an important concept which are used in organizing drawings. Layer properties manager is the main icon for being activated and inactivated in creating and adjusting shapes and drawing. After creating shapes and drawing the page of autocad most of the times we need to add a text, this is done by guide text , text arrangement and text mode command , then the next stage is editing them. All the calculations which have been done and formed on the shape. To adjust the dimensions are also key instruction in autocad. Whenever we are going to copy a shape, converting it to a block is a good idea. Block means a collection of geometric shapes whose name is determined in the image. At the end, the feature of printing is also possible, by choosing favorite printer and giving commands to the program.
  • AutoCAD - Chapter 6
    By: CVT
    Chapter 6 : The method of using commands Lesson 1 : To draw a quadrangle Lesson 2 : How to draw a polygon Lesson 3 : How to draw an ellipse Lesson 4 : Arrangement by hatching Autocad is a professional but user friendly program with a broad scope of information. This collection teaches step by step drawing geometric shapes and their measures very clearly. At first, this program focuses on simulation and modeling and you will see various methods and tools to work with. Ribbon is one of the most important icon which acts as a big box full of icons in its shelves. In addition to Ribbon, Palette is another brilliant part in interface. Palettes provide quick access to designing items, properties and commands. The lowest part in interface is called status bar which gives and displays information about the settings. By putting mouse indicator on each item, we can see their status from guide frame. To start a new program in Autocad , it is better to know how we can open a file. DWG suffix which is a short form of drawing. This drawing is used for introducing the file and saved sample. There are different commands such as panning, zooming and regen which are used a lot in precise mathematical calculation. Saving the documents can be done easily with the help of instructions in Autocad. Drawing shapes and lines are necessary and full application in autocad as well as using ortho and polar. They are used for determining angles like the angle 90 degrees . For drawing circles, you can activate grids and then by drawing the radius , in drawing these shapes , dimensions are very important. Units play some roles in measuring the architectural plans which are mostly inch and foot. Metric system can help for measuring units in autocad as well. You also see some features such as snap object to draw shapes. Before beginning, you ought to activate grid and dynamic input from status bar. There are automatic parts in object snap too. To draw a quadrangle, ellipse and polygon is another feature of autocad , like other shapes, you can use commands. Line command is really central in all drawings. Copy and move are other commands which are used in drawing geometric shapes. Omission and addition are the other methods in drawing geometric shapes, then offset can be really vital. Actually offset command is used for copying. The other commands are undo and redo which are used for returning the shapes in their first mode. Hatching is one feature which has been left from the age of pencil and paper. Adding hatch effects increase the attraction of image. Another feature is fillet feature , by using them , we can form the points and corners as curve. Layers can also be an important concept which are used in organizing drawings. Layer properties manager is the main icon for being activated and inactivated in creating and adjusting shapes and drawing. After creating shapes and drawing the page of autocad most of the times we need to add a text, this is done by guide text , text arrangement and text mode command , then the next stage is editing them. All the calculations which have been done and formed on the shape. To adjust the dimensions are also key instruction in autocad. Whenever we are going to copy a shape, converting it to a block is a good idea. Block means a collection of geometric shapes whose name is determined in the image. At the end, the feature of printing is also possible, by choosing favorite printer and giving commands to the program.
  • AutoCAD - Chapter 5
    By: CVT
    Chapter 5 : More accuracy to run the plan Lesson 1 : Introduction to Dekart coordination system Lesson 2 : To use object snap feature to draw shapes Lesson 3 : Automation of choosing object snap Lesson 4 : Function of temporary tracking in finding points in space Autocad is a professional but user friendly program with a broad scope of information. This collection teaches step by step drawing geometric shapes and their measures very clearly. At first, this program focuses on simulation and modeling and you will see various methods and tools to work with. Ribbon is one of the most important icon which acts as a big box full of icons in its shelves. In addition to Ribbon, Palette is another brilliant part in interface. Palettes provide quick access to designing items, properties and commands. The lowest part in interface is called status bar which gives and displays information about the settings. By putting mouse indicator on each item, we can see their status from guide frame. To start a new program in Autocad , it is better to know how we can open a file. DWG suffix which is a short form of drawing. This drawing is used for introducing the file and saved sample. There are different commands such as panning, zooming and regen which are used a lot in precise mathematical calculation. Saving the documents can be done easily with the help of instructions in Autocad. Drawing shapes and lines are necessary and full application in autocad as well as using ortho and polar. They are used for determining angles like the angle 90 degrees . For drawing circles, you can activate grids and then by drawing the radius , in drawing these shapes , dimensions are very important. Units play some roles in measuring the architectural plans which are mostly inch and foot. Metric system can help for measuring units in autocad as well. You also see some features such as snap object to draw shapes. Before beginning, you ought to activate grid and dynamic input from status bar. There are automatic parts in object snap too. To draw a quadrangle, ellipse and polygon is another feature of autocad , like other shapes, you can use commands. Line command is really central in all drawings. Copy and move are other commands which are used in drawing geometric shapes. Omission and addition are the other methods in drawing geometric shapes, then offset can be really vital. Actually offset command is used for copying. The other commands are undo and redo which are used for returning the shapes in their first mode. Hatching is one feature which has been left from the age of pencil and paper. Adding hatch effects increase the attraction of image. Another feature is fillet feature , by using them , we can form the points and corners as curve. Layers can also be an important concept which are used in organizing drawings. Layer properties manager is the main icon for being activated and inactivated in creating and adjusting shapes and drawing. After creating shapes and drawing the page of autocad most of the times we need to add a text, this is done by guide text , text arrangement and text mode command , then the next stage is editing them. All the calculations which have been done and formed on the shape. To adjust the dimensions are also key instruction in autocad. Whenever we are going to copy a shape, converting it to a block is a good idea. Block means a collection of geometric shapes whose name is determined in the image. At the end, the feature of printing is also possible, by choosing favorite printer and giving commands to the program.
  • AutoCAD - Chapter 4
    By: CVT
    Chapter 4 : Familiarity with drawing units Lesson 1 : definition style of a measuring unit Lesson 2 : Geometric drafting by using architectural measures Lesson 3 : Method by metric system Autocad is a professional but user friendly program with a broad scope of information. This collection teaches step by step drawing geometric shapes and their measures very clearly. At first, this program focuses on simulation and modeling and you will see various methods and tools to work with. Ribbon is one of the most important icon which acts as a big box full of icons in its shelves. In addition to Ribbon, Palette is another brilliant part in interface. Palettes provide quick access to designing items, properties and commands. The lowest part in interface is called status bar which gives and displays information about the settings. By putting mouse indicator on each item, we can see their status from guide frame. To start a new program in Autocad , it is better to know how we can open a file. DWG suffix which is a short form of drawing. This drawing is used for introducing the file and saved sample. There are different commands such as panning, zooming and regen which are used a lot in precise mathematical calculation. Saving the documents can be done easily with the help of instructions in Autocad. Drawing shapes and lines are necessary and full application in autocad as well as using ortho and polar. They are used for determining angles like the angle 90 degrees . For drawing circles, you can activate grids and then by drawing the radius , in drawing these shapes , dimensions are very important. Units play some roles in measuring the architectural plans which are mostly inch and foot. Metric system can help for measuring units in autocad as well. You also see some features such as snap object to draw shapes. Before beginning, you ought to activate grid and dynamic input from status bar. There are automatic parts in object snap too. To draw a quadrangle, ellipse and polygon is another feature of autocad , like other shapes, you can use commands. Line command is really central in all drawings. Copy and move are other commands which are used in drawing geometric shapes. Omission and addition are the other methods in drawing geometric shapes, then offset can be really vital. Actually offset command is used for copying. The other commands are undo and redo which are used for returning the shapes in their first mode. Hatching is one feature which has been left from the age of pencil and paper. Adding hatch effects increase the attraction of image. Another feature is fillet feature , by using them , we can form the points and corners as curve. Layers can also be an important concept which are used in organizing drawings. Layer properties manager is the main icon for being activated and inactivated in creating and adjusting shapes and drawing. After creating shapes and drawing the page of autocad most of the times we need to add a text, this is done by guide text , text arrangement and text mode command , then the next stage is editing them. All the calculations which have been done and formed on the shape. To adjust the dimensions are also key instruction in autocad. Whenever we are going to copy a shape, converting it to a block is a good idea. Block means a collection of geometric shapes whose name is determined in the image. At the end, the feature of printing is also possible, by choosing favorite printer and giving commands to the program.
  • AutoCAD - Chapter 3
    By: CVT
    Chapter 3 : The style of geometric shapes creation Lesson 1 : How to draw lines Lesson 2 : To lock the angles by ortho and polar Lesson 3 : to draw a circle Lesson 4 : To activate heads-up display Autocad is a professional but user friendly program with a broad scope of information. This collection teaches step by step drawing geometric shapes and their measures very clearly. At first, this program focuses on simulation and modeling and you will see various methods and tools to work with. Ribbon is one of the most important icon which acts as a big box full of icons in its shelves. In addition to Ribbon, Palette is another brilliant part in interface. Palettes provide quick access to designing items, properties and commands. The lowest part in interface is called status bar which gives and displays information about the settings. By putting mouse indicator on each item, we can see their status from guide frame. To start a new program in Autocad , it is better to know how we can open a file. DWG suffix which is a short form of drawing. This drawing is used for introducing the file and saved sample. There are different commands such as panning, zooming and regen which are used a lot in precise mathematical calculation. Saving the documents can be done easily with the help of instructions in Autocad. Drawing shapes and lines are necessary and full application in autocad as well as using ortho and polar. They are used for determining angles like the angle 90 degrees . For drawing circles, you can activate grids and then by drawing the radius , in drawing these shapes , dimensions are very important. Units play some roles in measuring the architectural plans which are mostly inch and foot. Metric system can help for measuring units in autocad as well. You also see some features such as snap object to draw shapes. Before beginning, you ought to activate grid and dynamic input from status bar. There are automatic parts in object snap too. To draw a quadrangle, ellipse and polygon is another feature of autocad , like other shapes, you can use commands. Line command is really central in all drawings. Copy and move are other commands which are used in drawing geometric shapes. Omission and addition are the other methods in drawing geometric shapes, then offset can be really vital. Actually offset command is used for copying. The other commands are undo and redo which are used for returning the shapes in their first mode. Hatching is one feature which has been left from the age of pencil and paper. Adding hatch effects increase the attraction of image. Another feature is fillet feature , by using them , we can form the points and corners as curve. Layers can also be an important concept which are used in organizing drawings. Layer properties manager is the main icon for being activated and inactivated in creating and adjusting shapes and drawing. After creating shapes and drawing the page of autocad most of the times we need to add a text, this is done by guide text , text arrangement and text mode command , then the next stage is editing them. All the calculations which have been done and formed on the shape. To adjust the dimensions are also key instruction in autocad. Whenever we are going to copy a shape, converting it to a block is a good idea. Block means a collection of geometric shapes whose name is determined in the image. At the end, the feature of printing is also possible, by choosing favorite printer and giving commands to the program.
  • AutoCAD - Chapter 2
    By: CVT
    Chapter 2 : How to open , see and save the drawings Lesson 1 : How to open Autocad files Lesson 2 : Introduction of mouse application Lesson 3 : How to pan, zoom and regen Lesson 4 : Work style in multi-documented space Lesson 5 : The style of drawing saving Lesson 6 : Templates and time saving Autocad is a professional but user friendly program with a broad scope of information. This collection teaches step by step drawing geometric shapes and their measures very clearly. At first, this program focuses on simulation and modeling and you will see various methods and tools to work with. Ribbon is one of the most important icon which acts as a big box full of icons in its shelves. In addition to Ribbon, Palette is another brilliant part in interface. Palettes provide quick access to designing items, properties and commands. The lowest part in interface is called status bar which gives and displays information about the settings. By putting mouse indicator on each item, we can see their status from guide frame. To start a new program in Autocad , it is better to know how we can open a file. DWG suffix which is a short form of drawing. This drawing is used for introducing the file and saved sample. There are different commands such as panning, zooming and regen which are used a lot in precise mathematical calculation. Saving the documents can be done easily with the help of instructions in Autocad. Drawing shapes and lines are necessary and full application in autocad as well as using ortho and polar. They are used for determining angles like the angle 90 degrees . For drawing circles, you can activate grids and then by drawing the radius , in drawing these shapes , dimensions are very important. Units play some roles in measuring the architectural plans which are mostly inch and foot. Metric system can help for measuring units in autocad as well. You also see some features such as snap object to draw shapes. Before beginning, you ought to activate grid and dynamic input from status bar. There are automatic parts in object snap too. To draw a quadrangle, ellipse and polygon is another feature of autocad , like other shapes, you can use commands. Line command is really central in all drawings. Copy and move are other commands which are used in drawing geometric shapes. Omission and addition are the other methods in drawing geometric shapes, then offset can be really vital. Actually offset command is used for copying. The other commands are undo and redo which are used for returning the shapes in their first mode. Hatching is one feature which has been left from the age of pencil and paper. Adding hatch effects increase the attraction of image. Another feature is fillet feature , by using them , we can form the points and corners as curve. Layers can also be an important concept which are used in organizing drawings. Layer properties manager is the main icon for being activated and inactivated in creating and adjusting shapes and drawing. After creating shapes and drawing the page of autocad most of the times we need to add a text, this is done by guide text , text arrangement and text mode command , then the next stage is editing them. All the calculations which have been done and formed on the shape. To adjust the dimensions are also key instruction in autocad. Whenever we are going to copy a shape, converting it to a block is a good idea. Block means a collection of geometric shapes whose name is determined in the image. At the end, the feature of printing is also possible, by choosing favorite printer and giving commands to the program.
  • AutoCAD - Chapter 1
    By: CVT
    Chapter 1 : A glance at application Link Lesson 1 : Modeling space introduction Lesson 2 : The availability method to Autocad tools Lesson 3 : Palette arrangement style Lesson 4 : Status bar Lesson 5 : command structure understanding in Autocad Lesson 6 : Customization of Autocad adjustments Lesson 7 : How to access the guide Lesson 8 : Saving style of workspace Autocad is a professional but user friendly program with a broad scope of information. This collection teaches step by step drawing geometric shapes and their measures very clearly. At first, this program focuses on simulation and modeling and you will see various methods and tools to work with. Ribbon is one of the most important icon which acts as a big box full of icons in its shelves. In addition to Ribbon, Palette is another brilliant part in interface. Palettes provide quick access to designing items, properties and commands. The lowest part in interface is called status bar which gives and displays information about the settings. By putting mouse indicator on each item, we can see their status from guide frame. To start a new program in Autocad , it is better to know how we can open a file. DWG suffix which is a short form of drawing. This drawing is used for introducing the file and saved sample. There are different commands such as panning, zooming and regen which are used a lot in precise mathematical calculation. Saving the documents can be done easily with the help of instructions in Autocad. Drawing shapes and lines are necessary and full application in autocad as well as using ortho and polar. They are used for determining angles like the angle 90 degrees . For drawing circles, you can activate grids and then by drawing the radius , in drawing these shapes , dimensions are very important. Units play some roles in measuring the architectural plans which are mostly inch and foot. Metric system can help for measuring units in autocad as well. You also see some features such as snap object to draw shapes. Before beginning, you ought to activate grid and dynamic input from status bar. There are automatic parts in object snap too. To draw a quadrangle, ellipse and polygon is another feature of autocad , like other shapes, you can use commands. Line command is really central in all drawings. Copy and move are other commands which are used in drawing geometric shapes. Omission and addition are the other methods in drawing geometric shapes, then offset can be really vital. Actually offset command is used for copying. The other commands are undo and redo which are used for returning the shapes in their first mode. Hatching is one feature which has been left from the age of pencil and paper. Adding hatch effects increase the attraction of image. Another feature is fillet feature , by using them , we can form the points and corners as curve. Layers can also be an important concept which are used in organizing drawings. Layer properties manager is the main icon for being activated and inactivated in creating and adjusting shapes and drawing. After creating shapes and drawing the page of autocad most of the times we need to add a text, this is done by guide text , text arrangement and text mode command , then the next stage is editing them. All the calculations which have been done and formed on the shape. To adjust the dimensions are also key instruction in autocad. Whenever we are going to copy a shape, converting it to a block is a good idea. Block means a collection of geometric shapes whose name is determined in the image. At the end, the feature of printing is also possible, by choosing favorite printer and giving commands to the program.
  • The Solar System

    The Solar System

    By: Teach
    The Solar System consists of the Sun and its planetary system of eight planets, their moons, and other non-stellar objects. It formed 4.6 billion years ago from the collapse of a giant molecular cloud. The vast majority of the system's mass is in the Sun, with most of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, also called the terrestrial planets, are primarily composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets, called the gas giants, are substantially more massive than the terrestrials. The two largest, Jupiter and Saturn, are composed mainly of hydrogen and helium; the two outermost planets, Uranus and Neptune, are composed largely of substances with relatively high melting points, called ices, such as water, ammonia and methane, and are often referred to separately as "ice giants". All planets have almost circular orbits that lie within a nearly flat disc called the ecliptic plane. The Solar System also contains a number of regions populated by smaller objects.The asteroid belt, which lies between Mars and Jupiter, is similar to the terrestrial planets as it mostly contains objects composed of rock and metal. Beyond Neptune's orbit lie the Kuiper belt and scattered disc; linked populations of trans-Neptunian objects composed mostly of ices. Within these populations, several dozen to more than 10,000 objects may be large enough to have been rounded by their own gravity. Such objects are referred to as dwarf planets. Identified dwarf planets include the asteroid Ceres and the trans-Neptunian objects Pluto, Eris, Haumea, and Makemake.In addition to these two regions, various other small-body populations including comets, centaurs and interplanetary dust freely travel between regions. Six of the planets, at least three of the dwarf planets, and many of the smaller bodies are orbited by natural satellites, usually termed "moons" after Earth's Moon. Each of the outer planets is encircled by planetary rings of dust and other particles.
  •  How to design Angry Birds Nail Art !
    By: Teach
    In the following steps you are able to design your nail, like Angry Birds, watch this video and dont forget to rate and like ;) It's very simple you need to bring your polishes and also dotting tools and design like me step by step. need to painting use red polish and black to design background and eyes and after that need yellow polish to add Bird beak. next you need to add final polish and enjoy your design. I hope you like this design.
  • How It's Made Chips ?
    By: Teach
    A potato chip (known as a crisp in British English and Hiberno-English; as a chip in American, Australian, New Zealand, Canadian, Singapore, South African, Jamaican English and as either a chip or wafer in Indian English) is a thin slice of potato that is deep fried or baked until crunchy. Potato chips are commonly served as an appetizer, side dish, or snack. The basic chips are cooked and salted; additional varieties are manufactured using various flavorings and ingredients including seasonings, herbs, spices, cheeses, and artificial additives. "Crisps", however, may also refer to many different types of savory snack products sold in the United Kingdom and Ireland, some made from potato, but may also be made from maize, tapioca or other cereals. An example of these kinds of savory snacks is Monster Munch
  • How Orange Juice is made?
    By: Teach
    1 Oranges are harvested from large groves. Some citrus growers are members of cooperative packing and marketing associations, while others are independent growers. When the mature fruit is ready to pick, a crew of pickers is sent in to pull the fruit off the trees. The collected fruit is sent to packing centers where it is boxed for sale as whole fruit, or sent to plants for juice processing. The oranges are generally shipped via truck to juice extraction facilities, where they are unloaded by a gravity feed onto a conveyor belt that transports the fruit to a storage bin. Cleaning/Grading 2 The fruit must be inspected and graded before it can be used. An inspector takes a 39.7 lb (18 kg) sample to analyze in order to make sure the fruit meets maturity requirements for processing. The certified fruit is then transported along a conveyor belt where it is washed with a detergent as it passes over roller brushes. This process removes debris and dirt and reduces the number of microbes. The fruit is rinsed and dried. Graders remove bad fruit as it passes over the rollers and the remaining quality pieces are automatically segregated by size prior to extraction. Proper size is critical for the extraction process. Extraction 3 Proper juice extraction is important to optimize the efficiency of the juice production process as well as the quality of the finished drink. The latter is true because oranges have thick peels, which contain bitter resins that must be carefully separated to avoid tainting the sweeter juice. There are two automated extraction methods commonly used by the industry. The first places the fruit between two metal cups with sharpened metal tubes at their base. The upper cup descends and the fingers on each cup mesh to express the juice as the tubes cut holes in the top and bottom of the fruit. The fruit solids are compressed into the bottom tube between the two plugs of peel while the juice is forced out through perforations in the tube wall. At the same time, a water spray washes away the oil from the peel. This oil is reclaimed for later use. The second type of extraction has the oranges cut in half before the juice is removed. The fruits are sliced as they pass by a stationary knife and the halves are then picked up by rubber suction cups and moved against plastic serrated reamers. The rotating reamers express the juice as the orange halves travel around the conveyor line. When the mature fruit is ready to pick, a crew of pickers pull the fruit off the trees. Once collected, the fruit is sent to plants for juice processing. Before extraction, the fruit is cleaned and graded. Some of the peel oil may be removed prior to extraction by needles which prick the skin, thereby releasing the oil which is washed away. Modern extraction equipment of this type can slice, ream, and eject a peel in about 3 seconds. 4 The extracted juice is filtered through a stainless steel screen before it is ready for the next stage. At this point, the juice can be chilled or concentrated if it is intended for a reconstituted beverage. If a NFC type, it may be pasteurized. Concentration 5 Concentrated juice extract is approximately five times more concentrated than squeezed juice. Diluted with water, it is used to make frozen juice and many RTD beverages. Concentration is useful because it extends the shelf life of the juice and makes storage and shipping more economical. Juice is commonly concentrated with a piece of equipment known as a Thermally Accelerated Short-Time Evaporator, or TASTE for short. TASTE uses steam to heat the juice under vacuum and force water to be evaporated. Concentrated juice is discharged to a vacuum flash cooler, which reduces the product temperature to about 55.4° F (13° C). A newer concentration process requires minimal heat treatment and is used commercially in Japan. The pulp is separated from the juice by ultra-filtration and pasteurized. The clarified juice containing the volatile flavorings is concentrated at 50° F (10° C) by reverse osmosis and the concentrate and the pulp are recombined to produce the appropriate juice concentration. The flavor of this concentrate has been judged to be superior to what is commercially available in the United States and is close to fresh juice. Juice concentrate is then stored in refrigerated stainless steel bulk tanks until is ready to be packaged or reconstituted. Reconstitution 6 When the juice processor is ready to prepare a commercial package for retail sale, concentrate is pulled from several storage batches and blended with water to achieve the desired sugar to acid ratio, color, and flavor. This step must be carefully controlled because during the concentration process much of the juice's flavor may be lost. Proper blending of juice concentrate and other flavor fractions is necessary to ensure the final juice product achieves a high quality flavor. Pasteurization 7 Thanks to its low pH (about 4), orange juice has some natural protection from In an automated process, the juice is extracted from the orange while the peel is removed in one step. bacteria, yeast, and mold growth. However, pasteurization is still required to further retard spoilage. Pasteurization also inactivates certain enzymes which cause the pulp to separate from the juice, resulting in an aesthetically undesirably beverage. This enzyme related clarification is one of the reasons why fresh squeezed juice has a shelf life of only a few hours. Flash pasteurization minimizes flavor changes from heat treatment and is recommended for premium quality products. Several pasteurization methods are commercially used. One common method passes juice through a tube next to a plate heat exchanger, so the juice is heated without direct contact with the heating surface. Another method uses hot, pasteurized juice to preheat incoming unpasteurized juice. The preheated juice is further heated with steam or hot water to the pasteurization temperature. Typically, reaching a temperature of 185-201.2° F (85-94° C) for about 30 seconds is adequate to reduce the microbe count and prepare the juice for filling. Packaging/filling 8 To ensure sterility, the pasteurized juice should be filled while still hot. Where possible, metal or glass bottles and cans can be preheated. Packaging which can not withstand high temperatures (e.g., aseptic, multilayer plastic juice boxes which don't require refrigeration) must be filled in a sterile environment. Instead of heat, hydrogen peroxide or another approved sterilizing agent may be used prior to filling. In any case, the empty packages are fed down a conveyor belt to liquid filling machinery, which is fed juice from bulk storage tanks. The filling head meters the precise amount of product into the container, and depending on the design of the package, it may immediately invert to sterilize the lid. After filling, the containers are cooled as fast as possible. Orange juice packaged in this manner has a shelf life of 6-8 months at room temperature.
  • How to make a Christmas Tree from  Recycle paper
    By: CVT
    Save money and have fun making your very own attractive, chic and unique Christmas decorations. There are lots of attractive recycled papers and materials available from arts, crafts and stationery shops or you can use any nice patterned papers, catalogues or magazines you come across too. The good news is when they start to look a little tired, or you decide you want new colours / patterns, the old ones can simply be recycled and you can quickly and easily make replacements. Enjoy!
  •  Nao Robot

    Nao Robot

    By: CVT
    Do you like to have robote or making one robote? This is the amazing home robot that make in Japan. Nao (pronounced now) is an autonomous, programmable humanoid robot developed by Aldebaran Robotics, a French startup company headquartered in Paris. The robot's development began with the launch of Project Nao in 2004. On 15 August 2007, Nao replaced Sony's robot dog Aibo as the robot used in the Robot Soccer World Cup (Robocup) Standard Platform League (SPL), an international robotics competition. The Nao was used in RoboCup 2008 and 2009, and the NaoV3R was chosen as the platform for the SPL at RoboCup 2010. The Nao Academics Edition is available for universities and laboratories for research and education purposes, and is projected for public distribution by 2011. In October 2010, the University of Tokyo purchased 30 Nao robots for their Nakamura Lab, with hopes of developing the robots into active lab assistants.
  • How It's Made Ice Cream
    By: CVT
    Ice cream is a frozen dessert usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavours. Most varieties contain sugar, although some are made with other sweeteners. In some cases, artificial flavourings and colourings are used in addition to, or instead of, the natural ingredients. The mixture of chosen ingredients is stirred slowly while cooling, in order to incorporate air and to prevent large ice crystals from forming. The result is a smoothly textured semi-solid foam that is malleable and can be scooped. The meaning of the phrase "ice cream" varies from one country to another. Phrases such as "frozen custard", "frozen yogurt", "sorbet", "gelato" and others are used to distinguish different varieties and styles. In some countries, such as the United States, the phrase "ice cream" applies only to a specific variety, and most governments regulate the commercial use of the various terms according to the relative quantities of the main ingredients. In other countries, such as Italy and Argentina, one word is used for all variants. Analogues made from dairy alternatives, such as goat's or sheep's milk, or milk substitutes, are available for those who are lactose intolerant, allergic to dairy protein, or vegan. The most popular flavours of ice cream are vanilla and chocolate.